Milk is a foodstuff which we discover in our early childhood and which accompanies us throughout our lives. It is a rich source of protein, minerals and vitamins, which are essential to our body.

The content of individual components in cow’s milk: water (86–89 %), fats (3,2–5,5 %), total protein (2,6–4,2 %), casein (2,8 %), serum protein (0,7 %), minerals (0,6–0,8 %).

Beside the above components, milk contains numerous vitamins.


Big things come from small beginnings and proteins are the basic building blocks of many tissues, especially muscles, and are therefore a very important dietary essential. From them the body can produce numerous other substances, which are essential for proper functioning. Milk proteins contain all the essential amino acids – basic structural units, from which the human body can build its own unique proteins.

Fats are also important for a balanced diet. The fats in milk contain essential fatty acids, which cannot be produced by the body itself, but can be obtained only through food. Fats in the body protect the organs, provide insulation and at the same time they are the source and storage of energy.


Other substances, which we do not need in greater quantities, are also important for a healthy diet. Vitamins, which provide for the appropriate functioning of the organism, are undoubtedly among them. In most cases, the body cannot produce them by itself, this is why the need for vitamins must be met by the intake of food, and milk does an excellent job in performing this task. It is a source of numerous mineral substances and at the same time carries out the metabolism of vitamins. This applies to liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) as well as water soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 and vitamin C).

100 g of cow’s milk contains the following vitamins:

Vitamin Unit Quantity DRI*
Vitamin A μg 35 800-1000
Vitamin D μg 0,074 20
Vitamin E mg 0,14 12-15
Vitamin K μg 0,36 60-80
Vitamin B1 μg 37 1000-1300
Vitamin B2 μg 180 1200-1500
Vitamin B6 μg 39 1200-1500
Vitamin B12 μg 0,42 3
Niacin mg 0,09 13-17
Pantothenic acid μg 350 6000
Folic Acid μg 6,7 400
Biotin μg 3,5 30-60
Vitamin C mg 1,7 100
*DRI – daily reccommended intake (19-65 years)
Source: Souci, Fachmann, Kraut: Food Composition and Nutrition Tables, 2008 s, 2008.
IVZ RS; Referenčne vrednosti za vnos vitaminov in mineralov – tabelarična priporočila za otroke, mladostnike, odrasle in starejše

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamins of the B-complex group are water soluble vitamins and are indispensable to our body. This group consists of vitamins B1, B2, B12, B3, B5, B6, folic acid and other four vitamins. One of the most important functions of this group is to aids metabolizing food – if we eat something, it does not necessarily mean that this alone provides energy to our body. And here, the B-complex group comes into play. It helps the body obtain energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The B-complex group also helps preventing the consequences of stress, which is nowadays very important to many of us.

Vitamin C belongs to the group of water soluble vitamins that help preventing circulatory diseases. Even though milk does not contain much vitamin C, its antioxidant action is not insignificant even in smaller quantities.

Liposoluble vitamins

Milk helps introducing liposoluble vitamins into our bodies (A, D, E and K). Vitamin A is important for sight, maintaining a healthy skin, the mucosa and bones. It strengthens the immune system, since it increases the resistance to various infections. Vitamin D regulates the quantity of calcium in blood and is therefore of key importance for maintaining healthy and strong bones. Vitamin E is a very strong antioxidant, protecting our body from many poisonous and carcinogenic substances. At the same time, it helps protecting the heart and the cardiovascular system.


The main role of minerals is to ensure the metabolism of vitamins in the body and at the same time to ensure their functioning. The body itself can produce certain vitamins, but this is not true for minerals. We must introduce them with food, and also with milk and dairy products.

Generally, minerals can be divided into two groups:

  • macro-elements: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, chlorine, sodium and magnesium;
  • micro-elements: iron, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride, zinc, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cobalt and vanadium.

100 g of cow’s milk contains the following minerals:

Minerals Unit Quantity DRI*
Calcium mg 120 1000
Magnesium mg 12 300-400
Iron mg 0,046 10
Copper mg 0,01 1-1,5
Zinc mg 0,38 7-10
Manganese µg 2,5 2000-5000
Potassium mg 157 2000
Selenium µg 1,3 30-70
Phosphorus mg 92 700
Iodine µg 2,7 180-200
Chromium µg 2,5 30-100
Molybdenum µg 4,2 50-100
Fluoride µg 17 3100-3800
Chloride mg 102 830
*DRI – daily reccommended intake (19-65 years)
Source: Souci, Fachmann, Kraut: Food Composition and Nutrition Tables, 2008.
IVZ RS; Referenčne vrednosti za vnos vitaminov in mineralov – tabelarična priporočila za otroke, mladostnike, odrasle in starejše

So, milk is a good source of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium and zinc. These six minerals have important roles in our bodies:

  • calcium is indispensable for building bones and teeth, and it has a positive effect on muscles, nerves and blood clotting;
  • magnesium regulates nervous functions, muscle contractions and aids a balanced transition of calcium, sodium and potassium ions through cell membranes;
  • phosphorus integrates in the bone and teeth structure, and is also important for the proper functioning of the heart and kidneys and for the transmission of nerve impulses;
  • potassium carries nerve impulses, affects muscle contraction, maintains normal blood pressure and has a beneficial effect on the development of the embryo;
  • selenium stimulates metabolism and protects the body from the harmful activity of free radicals;
  • zinc is a component of important enzymes and is present in all the tissues of the body; it controls muscle contraction, accelerates the healing of wounds and is indispensable for producing proteins and insulin.

With just two bowls of milk a day we consume numerous vitamins and minerals that are extremely important for our health and everyday functioning of the body and can be hardly replaced by other foodstuffs.

Milk is therefore an excellent, healthy foodstuff, which cannot be given up, except in case of allergies. At Ljubljanske mlekarne we also take care for all those who have problems metabolizing milk sugar (lactose intolerance). Lactose-free Alpine milk has all the components which represent the full value of milk and dairy products.